Hepatitis (A, B, C, toxic) Overview,Symptoms And Prevention
Tuesday, October 11,2016
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, most often caused by infection with a virus, but sometimes by alcoholism, or intoxication by a drug or a chemical.
Symptoms vary greatly from person to person and depend on the cause of hepatitis. Certain types of hepatitis squarely cause the destruction of a portion of liver.
The majority of hepatitis resolve spontaneously. Sometimes the disease persists for several months. When it lasts more than 6 months, it is considered chronic. When the liver is severely damaged, a transplant of that organ may be the only solution.
Hepatitis fall into two main categories:
Viral hepatitis, caused by infection with a virus. In developed countries, hepatitis A, B and C generate about 90% of cases of acute hepatitis. The hepatitis D, E and G are also responsible for hepatitis.
non-viral hepatitis, mainly caused by the ingestion of toxic to the liver (alcohol, toxic chemicals, etc.). Non viral hepatitis can also be the result of diseases affecting the liver as fatty liver ( “fatty liver”) and autoimmune hepatitis (chronic inflammatory hepatitis of obscure origin, which is characterized by the production of auto-antibodies).
HAV is present in the world but incidence and prevalence levels are linked to the level of economic development of regions. Schematically, more socio-economic conditions are bad, the higher the rate of people who have encountered the virus is large (up to 100% in some areas of Africa) and the contamination occurs early in childhood.
In France, in 1970, 50% of people aged at least 20 years had encountered the virus. They are only 10 to 20% today thanks to improved sanitation; where a significant risk of infection in countries with high prevalence trips.
How do you get hepatitis A?
The Hepatitis A is present in the stool of infected persons. Hepatitis A is thus transmitted by the fecal-oral route, either from person to person or through food or contaminated water.
For example, it may contract the virus by failing to wash their hands after changing diapers of a baby or after using the toilet.
One can also catch it by consuming contaminated water or food that has been in contact with contaminated water, such as shellfish and raw or undercooked shellfish, vegetables, salads and unpeeled fruit.
Contamination can also occur when an infected person handles food.
The virus can also be transmitted during oral or anal sex.
The virus can be transmitted wherever sanitary conditions and personal hygiene are inadequate. The contagious period begins 15 days before the onset of symptoms and ends 15 days after their disappearance.
Incubation period: 15 to 45 days.
Signs and Symptoms: Most people who are hepatitis A, whether mild or severe, recover naturally. Symptoms usually disappear within 4 to 6 weeks.
There is a vaccine against HAV. There is also a combined vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B is a sexually transmitted disease most widespread on the planet and the most deadly. 2 billion people, or one in three people in the world have already been in contact with the virus. Currently, 350 million people are chronic hepatitis B. Hepatitis B causes 2 million deaths per year: this is the second leading cause of cancer worldwide after tobacco.
In France 280,000 people are living with chronic hepatitis B. It is the cause of 1500 deaths per year. More than half of those infected with hepatitis B do not know they carry the virus.
How do you get hepatitis B?
The hepatitis B is highly contagious: ten times the hepatitis C, a hundred times more than the AIDS virus. It is also more resistant and is not destroyed by alcohol and ether. The virus in dried blood can remain stable up to seven days at a temperature of 25 ° C.
HBV is spread by contact with blood and other body fluids (semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk).
If one is not vaccinated, it can be contaminated by:
Sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal or receiving oral sex) with an infected person.
Sharing or handling of syringes and injection equipment or sniff (spoon, cotton, straw, etc.).
Direct contact with the blood of an infected person not with the blood of an infected person.
Pregnancy and / or childbirth (HBV transmission from a mother infected her newborn).
Sharing razors, toothbrushes, scissors, nail clippers, tweezers, piercing jewelry, earrings, etc.
Tattooing, acupuncture and piercing done without the necessary hygiene (equipment must be disposable or sterilized by autoclaving).
It can not be contaminated by food, water, common toilet use.
In 90% of cases, the body naturally eliminates the virus.
Incubation period: 50 to 100 days.
Signs and Symptoms: Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) .Other general symptoms such as fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, pain in the stomach and discomfort.
There is treatment that can stop the progression in over 50% of cases.
There is an effective vaccine against HBV. There is also a combined vaccine against hepatitis B and hepatitis A.
Hepatitis C is a relatively common disease. An estimated 170 million people, or 3% of the world population, are chronically infected with HCV worldwide and 3 to 4 million persons are newly infected each year. Considering that HCV is responsible for about 20% of cases of acute hepatitis and 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis.
Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). The silent evolution of the disease and the high rate of chronicity explain the existence of a large infected tank.
In France 220,000 people are living with chronic hepatitis C 1/3 still undetected. It is originally 2600 deaths per year. About a third of people infected with hepatitis C are unaware they have the virus.
How do you get hepatitis C?
The Hepatitis C is spread primarily by direct contact with contaminated blood or blood products. It has identified several cases of infection from blood products before they are tested for the presence of hepatitis C. However, current detection techniques have virtually eliminated the risk of transmission of hepatitis C users of the French system of blood collection and distribution.
At present, the main route of transmission of hepatitis C lies in the use by people who inject drugs, syringes and other contaminated instruments (70% of 5000 new cases per year).
The risk of infection is also present during the use of contaminated equipment used for tattooing, body piercing, acupuncture and inhaling cocaine intranasally (snorting).
The risk of infection through sexual contact (traumatic practices) or during pregnancy remains low (less than 5% more if the mother has a double hepatitis C and HIV infection)
Hepatitis C can also be spread by sharing with an infected person, personal items such as a razor or toothbrush.
The disease also may make its appearance among people who received blood transfusions before 1992.
Hepatitis C is not spread through casual contact such as clenching someone in his arms, kissing her, deep kiss or shake hands or because of the proximity of a person who sneezes or coughs.
The virus is not present either in food or water.
Incubation period: 15 to 45 days.
Signs and symptoms: 20% to 30% of infected people can make jaundice (yellow skin and eyes). Other symptoms of a general nature (discomfort, loss of appetite, stomach pain, dark urine and fatigue) were observed in 10% to 20% of those infected.
70% to 80% of those infected have no signs or symptoms of infection. 20% to 30% of people with acute hepatitis C without treatment.
There is treatment that will cure in more than 50% of cases (50-80% depending on the genotype of the virus).
Frequency of hepatitis
In Canada, hepatitis C is the most common viral hepatitis: each year, affects about 45 100 people in 0001. As for hepatitis B, it reaches about 3 100 000 Canadians, and hepatitis A, 100 0001.42 1.5.
Viral hepatitis is much more common in non-industrialized countries. Hepatitis A is endemic in Africa, in some countries in South America and Asia. It is the same for hepatitis B. In fact, in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, where 8% to 10% of the population are carriers of hepatitis B, it is the a leading cause of adult mortality (liver cancer or cirrhosis). Almost 3% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C. In Africa, the prevalence of infection is highest in the world: it exceeds 5% 4.
Public health authorities are struggling to fight against viral hepatitis, which often go unnoticed for years. Before a diagnosis is established, the infection can not only have caused serious damage in the body, but also have passed on to other people.
Undiagnosed or poorly treated in time hepatitis may lead to very serious complications.
chronic hepatitis. It is the most common complication. Hepatitis is called chronic if it has not healed after 6 months. In 75% of cases it is the result of hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Chronic adequately treated usually heals within one to three years.
Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis corresponds to excessive production of “scarring” in liver, formed as a result of repeated attacks (through toxins, viruses, etc.). These ‘fibrous barriers “eventually impede the free flow of blood in the body. 20% to 25% of chronic hepatitis develop cirrhosis if treatment is not fully or if it is not followed.
Liver cancer. This is the ultimate complication of cirrhosis. It should be noted however that liver cancer may also result from a localized cancer in another organ which extends liver metastases. Hepatitis B and C and toxic hepatitis caused by excessive alcohol consumption are most likely to progress to cancer.
Fulminant hepatitis. Very rarely, fulminant hepatitis is characterized by a major failure of the liver, which can no longer fulfill his duties. Massive destruction of liver tissue occurs and organ transplantation is necessary. It occurs mostly in people with hepatitis B or hepatitis toxic. For about 1 in 4, it is fatal in short order.
The symptoms of hepatitis Hepatitis (A, B, C, toxic)
Hepatitis may not be betrayed by the various symptoms mentioned below. In many cases, the disease remains silent for years or simply manifests flu-like symptoms (fever, muscle aches, fatigue, headache). it may have caused some serious damage.
Typical symptoms of acute hepatitis
Fever or sweating in the late afternoon.
Loss of appetite and weight loss.
Abdominal discomfort (especially the right).
Jaundice (yellowed skin and cornea).
Dark urine (the color of tea).
Symptoms of hepatitis fulminant
Red spots on the skin, signs of hemorrhage and nosebleeds.
Mental confusion sometimes leading to coma.
Note. In cirrhosis, there is a swelling of the abdomen and legs (caused by water retention), confusion, easy bleeding and loss of muscle mass.
The prevention of hepatitis (A, B, C, toxic)
Screening is recommended for individuals with cirrhosis, hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C or other chronic liver disease. Vaccination is recommended for those who do not have antibodies against the virus of hepatitis A.
A screening test for hepatitis B is offered to all pregnant women at their first prenatal visit. It will be made later in childbirth. The infection can be fatal for pregnant women and for babies whose mothers are infected.
People at high risk are encouraged to take a screening test, since the disease can remain silent for a few years.
The screening test is recommended for all people infected with HIV (HIV).
High-risk individuals are invited to take a test screening, the disease can remain silent for a few years.
The screening test is recommended for all people with HIV.
Basic preventative measures to avoid contracting hepatitis
At all times
Buy seafood from a reliable dealer and clean them if raw is expected to eat them.
Do not eat raw seafood in restaurants where the hygiene is not in doubt. Do not eat mussels or other marine products found beside the sea.
When traveling in areas of the world where infection with hepatitis A is prevalent
Consult a doctor 2 to 3 months before departure. Learn preventive measures in a travel clinic .
Never drink tap water. Also avoid using it to brush your teeth, and do not add ice to your drinks. Rather drink water from bottles decapsulated ahead. Failure to sterilize tap water by boiling 5 minutes. This not only eliminates the virus of hepatitis A, but other microorganisms which might be present. Abstain from consuming soft drinks and beers produced locally.
Remove its power supply all raw, not washed since the wash water may be contaminated: fruits and uncooked vegetables (except those with peel), green salads, meats and raw fish, seafood and other raw shellfish. Especially as, in at-risk areas, these foods can also be infected with other pathogens.
In case of injury, never clean a wound with tap water. Use a disinfectant.
During sex, use condoms consistently. It is better to think in bring with you to ensure their quality.
In Canada, there are four vaccines against hepatitis A (Havrix® Vaqta®, Avaxim® and Epaxal Berna®) and 2 vaccines against hepatitis A and B (Twinrix and Twinrix Junior). Immunity is acquired approximately 4 weeks after vaccination; it persists a year after the first dose (the vaccine efficacy duration lengthens if we receive booster doses). The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends vaccination for all people at high risk. These vaccines have an efficiency of over 95%.
Where a rapid immunization (within 4 weeks) and of short duration is required, immunoglobulins can be administered. They can be given within two weeks of exposure to the virus, and their effectiveness rate is 80% to 90%. They are mostly used in the case of infants and people whose immune system is weakened.
Hygiene measures in the event of contact with an infected person or if one is self infected
Wash hands systematically after going to the toilet, before handling food and before eating; this, to prevent contagion.
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
At all times
Hepatitis (A, B, C, toxic)
Use condoms during sex with new partners.
Wear gloves before touching the blood of a person, whether infected or not. This precaution is especially true in the case of nursing staff. Also avoid using the razor or toothbrush of another person, or lend his.
If you get a tattoo or “break”, make sure that staff use good equipment sterilized or disposable.
Never share syringes or needles.
Routine immunization of children (aged 9 and 10 years) against hepatitis B is now recommended, as well as that of individuals at risk who are not vaccinated (such as people working in the field of health).
Two vaccines are licensed in Canada: Recombivax HB® and Engerix-B®. They can be safely administered to pregnant women and nursing mothers. In Canada, there are 2 combination vaccines that protect against hepatitis A and B, given to people at risk for these 2 infections (Twinrix and Twinrix Junior).
Vaccination against hepatitis B in people with chronic liver disease (other than hepatitis B, such as cirrhosis or hepatitis C) reduces the risk that they will infect with the virus and their health deteriorating further. For these people the liver already achieved, the consequences of hepatitis B are more serious.
The injection of hepatitis B immune globulin is recommended to anyone who came in contact recently (for 7 days or less) with infected blood or body fluids. The immune globulin is recommended in the case of newborns whose mother has the virus.
There is no vaccine against the virus of hepatitis C.
Hygiene measures in the event of contact with an infected person or if one is self infected
All contaminated object blood (sanitary napkin, needle, dental floss, bandages, etc.) must be placed in a container resistant to be discarded and placed out of reach of all.
All toilet equipment (razor, toothbrush, etc.) must be strictly reserved to its owner.
Note. There is no risk of contamination in the following cases: a simple touch (provided there is no contact with a wound), coughing and sneezing, kissing, contact with sweat , handling everyday objects (dishes, etc.).
Follow the instructions on the package of drugs (including those over the counter, such as acetaminophen) and natural health products.
Attention to interactions between drugs and alcohol. For example, it is against inappropriate to drink alcohol and take acetaminophen (eg Tylenol® and Acet®). Check with your pharmacist.
Store drugs and natural health products in a safe place, away from children.
Adopt appropriate safety measures in the workplace.
People who eat Chinese or Ayurvedic traditional medicines (India) herbal or considering doing must ensure the quality of herbal remedies. Some cases of toxic hepatitis caused by poor quality products were reported 35-38: contamination (intentionally or not) by a toxic plant, a drug or heavy metals occurred.
Slimming products and those to treat impotence are most often implicated. Before making the purchase of a natural remedy manufactured in China or India, it is important to consult a traditional practitioner, naturopaths or a trained herbalist. One can also regularly check the warnings on non-compliant products published by Health Canada.
Tuesday, October 11,2016-11:45:22[London]
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